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A Brief History of Brewing in Evansville, Indiana

Old Brewery, Fulton Avenue Brewery, Cook's,
Hartmetz, Evansville Brewing Association, Sterling, Heilman
Union, Wittekindt, Turoni's Main Street


The two big breweries in Evansville's history have a common ancestor.


Old Brewery
Fulton Ave. Brewery

Old Brewery

Rice & Kroener
1837 - 1853

Kroener & Son
1853 - 1877

Ulmer & Hoedt
1877 - 1881

Jacob Rice and Fred Kroener, established the "Old Brewery" in Evansville in 1837. This was near the Wabash & Erie canal at the northeast corner of Fulton and Indiana.

In 1853 they split, Rice going with his step-son, F. W. Cook, in the City Brewer (below), and Kroener keeping the Old Brewery with his son. Peak production at this facility was 3,090 bbls.

Ulmer & Hoedt
1881 - 1884

Ulmer, Reitman & Schulte
1884 - 1886

Fulton Avenue Brewery
1886 - 1894

Ulmer & Hoedt built a new brewery diagonally across the street from the Old Brewery, on the southwest corner of Fulton and Indiana. This brewery opened in 1881.

The Fulton Ave Brewery was the site of the first electric lights in Evansville in October 1880. Peak production was 25,000 bbls annually.


"Fulton Avenue Brewery. — A well-known building in Evansville was the Old Brewery. This was occupied by the famous firm of Ullmer & Hoedt from 1877 until 1881 and here they achieved for their product a reputation unsurpassed by none. Among the consumers of malt liquors the reputation of Evansville beer has become wide-spread and most flattering to the manufacturers of this city. The strong points of the product are purity, brilliancy of color, richness of flavor, and non-liability to deterioration by climate, and in all these, the Evansville beer is unsurpassed. The formation of this creditable reputation is in large part due to the skill and business ability of Messrs. Ullmer & Hoedt.

These gentlemen came to the city in 1877 ready to begin on November 1st. They made their first brewing on the 27th of that month, and turned out the first beer December 31st. They prospered from the first, their product sprang at once into popular favor, and in less than thirty months they were able to add one of the most handsome and complete breweries in the country to the industries of Evansville.

The members of the firm are Charles Wilhelm Ullmer, a native of Russia, and the business manager of the establishment, who came to this country in 1868, and Ferdinand Hoedt, a native of Baden, who came to America in 1865. The latter is naturally a brewer, his father and grandfather having been in the business, and he learned his trade so thoroughly that he now has no superior in the country, in his father's brewery at Heidelberg.

The new brewery, which the firm has occupied for several years, is 74x116 feet, four stories high, and fitted at a cost of $45,000 with all that science and art has devised for the best production of the beverage under the most healthful and attractive conditions. The brewery has a cellar capacity of 3,000 barrels constantly on hand, and a selling capacity of 18,000 barrels per annum. Besides the beer kettle with a capacity of 125 barrels, there is a mash tub with a capacity of 150 barrels, and two steam tubs of 100 and 300 barrels each.

The ice as it melts is caught and conveyed to cisterns underneath the beer cellar, which is 40x18 feet, and a capacity of 29,000 gallons. This establishment maintains a large number of employees, and the weekly pay-roll is no inconsiderable item." -  History of Vanderburgh County - 1889

Resident agents were hired in many cities including Mt. Vernon

The Fulton Avenue Brewery is one of the three that consolidated into the Evansville Brewing Association in 1894. The others were John Hartmetz & Son and Evansville Brewing Co. (see below)

F.W. Cook

Cook & Rice, City Brewery
1853 - 1885

F.W. Cook Brewing Company
1885 - 1933

F.W. Cook Company
1933 - 1955

With $330, City Brewery was founded by Frederick Washington Cook (right) and his stepfather, Jacob Rice, at 11 NW 7th St. Rice managed the brewery and Cook looked after the business details.

They rebuilt the brewery in 1858 including a malt house and a large lagering cellar, having previously only made ale. By 1885 they had a capacity of 30,000 bbls.
 


"In 1837, Messrs. Rice and Kroener bought property in Lamasco, near the terminus of the Wabash and Erie Canal, which was then in course of construction, and in the same year built what is now known as the 'Old Brewery' — the first brewery built in Evansville. Mr. Cook remained with his parents until 1853, when he entered into a copartnership with Louis Rice, a brother of Mr. Cook's step-father, and built the City Brewery — the premises on which it stands then being a corn-field. When they began business the cash capital of the firm was $330 ; Louis Rice having saved $165 from his earnings, and Mr. Cook's father advancing him an equal amount. Louis Rice attended to the brewing department, and Mr. Cook to the business and financial department. They continued together with good success, until 1857, when Louis Rice sold his interest in the brewery to Jacob Rice, (Mr. Cook's father,) for $3,500. The new firm commenced building a Lager Beer cellar at once; and in 1858 made the first lager beer in Southern Indiana. In 1858, they also built an extensive malt-house." -  Evansville and Its Men of Mark - 1873

In 1872 Jacob Rice died and when Mrs. Rice died in 1878 F. W. Cook inherited the entire business.


"F. W. Cook Brewing Co. — F. W. Cook and Louis Reis, under the firm name of "Cook & Reis," established and built the City Brewery in 1853, the site then being a corn-field. They continued together until 1857, when Louis Reis sold his interest in the brewery to his brother, Jacob Reis (the step-father of Mr. Cook), leaving the style of the firm unchanged.

In 1873 Mr. Reis met with an accident which resulted in his death, whereupon Mr. Cook became sole proprietor. In 1885 the City Brewery was converted into a stock company under the corporate name of F. W. Cook Brewing Co. with the following stockholders: F. W. Cook, sr., F. W. Cook, jr., H. E. Cook, Andrew Wollenberger, G. M. Daussman, Philip P. Puder and Gus B. Mann.

F. W. Cook, sr., F. W. Cook, jr., H. E. Cook, Andrew Wollenberger and G. M. Daussman are the directors of the company, and its officers are as follows: F. W. Cook, sr., president and general manager; F. W. Cook, jr., vice president: Andrew Wollenberger, superintendent; G.' M. Daussman, secretary and treasurer; Philip P. Puder, general agent.

The sales of the establishment for the present year will amount to 75.000 barrels; 110 men are employed in its various departments and $75,000.00 is paid annually in wages. The consumption of malt and hops for the year will be 185,000 bushels of the former, and 115,000 pounds of the latter.

While the product of the F. W. Cook Brewing Co.— the famous 'Pilsener Beer' — has become a household word and is the most popular beverage in this part of the country, it has also won an enviable reputation abroad, especially in the southern states, and large quantities of it are daily being shipped to all the principal cities of the south. Purity, brilliancy and deliciousness of the flavor, together with its sparkling, foaming qualities, is what has made the Pilsener of the F. W. Cook Brewing Co. so popular wherever it has been introduced." -  History of Vanderburgh County - 1889

A fire destroyed the brewery and offices in 1891. They were immediately rebuilt, opening in 1893 with a capacity of 300,000 barrels annually.

Upon F. W. Cook's death in 1913 (at the age of 81) his son Henry ran it until his death in 1929. Then Henry's brother, Charles Cook, took over.

F.W. Cook was also the president of the Evansville Suburban Newburgh Traction company (an interurban railroad) and the District Telegraph Company. He also owned the Cook Investment Company and Cook Realty which operated Evansville's largest amusement park - in Cook Park.

There was a tavern, The Rathskeller, in the basement of the brewery building (postcard below). By 1910 production reached 600,000 bbls.

The Louisville & Nashville RR took a case to the U.S. Supreme Court in 1912 against Cook because the L&NRR refused to accept shipments from Evansville to dry counties in Kentucky. Cook had won in the Circuit Court and received an injunction forcing the L&NRR to ship kegs and cases of beer.

The plant was closed during Prohibition.

The reorganization in 1933 was done to include the purchase of the abandoned downtown Evansville railroad line of the remains of the Evansville & Princeton Traction Company. This third-mile section of track down 9th St. linked the brewery to the Chicago & Eastern Illinois RR yard at 9th & Division Sts. The new railroad was called the Cook Transit Corporation and had one "box motor" electric locomotive. A 2-person crew would switch out the brewery twice daily - between 15 and 25 cars, Monday through Friday. A replacement locomotive was bought in 1947. This 1915 GE electric unit was retired when the brewery closed and is now at the Transportation Museum in Noblesville.

In 1935 & 1936 they sponsored a semi-pro baseball team, Cook's Goldblumes.

In 1948 Tony Hulman of Indianapolis Motor Speedway fame bought controlling interest. After the workers went on strike in 1955, wanting equal pay with Sterlings' employees, he closed it. At that time capacity was 750,000 bbls. The corporation existed until 1961 but did no brewing.

The former Evansville Jail and Courts building, built in 1965, now occupies the site.

Their Goldblume brand was brewed in other locations until 1972 and revived by the 1988-1997 reincarnation of the Evansville brewery. F.W. Cook also brewed Tropical Extra Fine Ale.

More pictures at Historic Evansville.


1920


1964
The dome on top of the building was removed in 1950.

Evansville Brewing Association
Sterling

Henry Schneider
1863 - 1876

John Hartmetz
1876 - 1891

John Hartmetz and Son
1891 - 1893

In 1863, Henry Schneider started a brewery on West Heights Road in "Babytown" (now Harmony Way at Maryland St.).

In 1865 Franz Rettig (no relation to the Franz Rettig of the Wabash Brewery) started a brewery in Louisville and produced the Sterling beer brand. The company went through many hands and several bankruptcies. It was sold at sheriff's auctions in 1869 and in 1876 to John and Charles Hartmetz.

John (right) and his brother Charles decided to go their separate ways when Schneider's brewery went up for sale in 1876. Legend says they flipped a coin to see who would stay in Louisville and who would move to Evansville.

Charles died in 1888 and the brewery in Louisville was sold by his widow to John Oertel in 1892 who produced Oertels '92 in honor of that date.

The Hartmetz Brewery was moved to near Pigeon Creek west of what is now Seventh Ave. at the Lloyd Expressway. The old facility continued to be used as a malt house and was used that way by the Evansville Brewing Association until 1910.
 

Evansville Brewing Co.

1891 - 1894

The Evansville Brewing Co. at Fourth & Ingle Streets. It was formed in 1891 by a group of men including Henry Wimberg who was the President of the company.

After consolidation into the Evansville Brewing Association, Wimberg's sons Henry A. and John G. managed branch sales offices in Indianapolis and Memphis. Son Louis W. became the bookkeeper of the Evansville Brewing Association when aged 19.

Evansville Brewing Association

1894 - 1918


(photo courtesy
Bruce Mobley)

When John Hartmetz moved his family back to Europe, his son, Charles F. Hartmetz inherited the operation and used it to bring together 3 Evansville breweries to form the Evansville Brewing Association. This Association was reportedly the result of a price war between the larger F.W. Cook brewery and the non-affiliated breweries in town.

The main office went to the largest and most modern facility, the Fulton Avenue Brewery (see above) and the others were eventually closed.

In 1910 the capacity of the EBA was reportedly 20,000 barrels, employing 250 people. Henry Wimburg was president.


Charles F's younger brother Otto eventually became the master brewer and Vice President of the company.

Charles and Otto Hartmetz, along with the mayor of Evansville, Charles Heilman (irony only), were major stockholders in the Simplicity Auto Company from 1907 to 1911. The brewery modified one of the cars to be used as a beer delivery truck.

They established a branch sales office in Indianapolis in September, 1913. The address was 402 Majestic Bldg., telephone 1438. They did both store and home delivery.


". . . the Evansville Brewery prevented an Evansville saloonkeeper from getting a new license from the county commissioners because he allowed women in his saloon." -  The Fort Wayne News, Dec 20, 1909

By 1910 the plant had a capacity of 20,000 bbls and employed 250 people.


"It's Square Up to The Beer Drinker.

Citizens of Indianapolis now privilege buying and drinking the famous brews of the Association. For several weeks we have given the public our beers that could be drunk with pleasure and real sound logical reasons at that. We have avoided cleverly constructed but deceptive advertisements and have struck out plainly and truthfully. We have endeavored to take the consumer into our confidence.

Thousands evidently have been favorably impressed with our frank statements and the excellent and enjoyable qualities of our beers because the demand for them is larger than expected. Our draught together with our famous bottled and are now on sale in many stands throughout Indianapolis. Every bar in the city will be supplied in the next weeks.

Our STERLING Bottled Beer
The most uniformly satisfactory beer"

- Ad in the Indianapolis Star, Oct 8, 1913

Sterling Products Co.
1918 - 1933

Sterling Brewers Inc.
1933 - 1964

Sterling Brewers Association (Associated Brewing)
1964 - 1972

G. Heilman
1972 - 1988


1939 ad

Like many others, the company renamed itself during prohibition and made soft drinks, near beer, and malt extract (which was used by illicit homebrewers). After prohibition it was reorganized and renamed.

In the 1930s they brewed Sterling and Lug o' Ale brands.

From 1933 until 1936 they produced Drewrys beer for Drewry's U.S.A., a subsidiary of Drewrys in Canada. In 1936 Drewrys bought the Meussel brewery in South Bend, Indiana, and moved their production there.

Around 1935 they sponsored a semi-pro "colored" baseball team called the Sterling Beers.

In 1937 they built a second brewery in Freeport, Illinois, to increase production. It made 50,000 bbl per year in addition to the 500,000 made in Evansville. They closed this plant in 1939, the same year Charles F died.


"MAKE MINE STERLING

Since STERLING beer brewed in the big EVANSVILLE BREWERY is again available in this territory, more and more people are asking for STERLING.

STERLING PILSENER BEER is one of America's Finest. All STERLING beer is brewed by the big brewer at EVANSVILLE, INDIANA, one of the best equipped breweries in the world.

Here are few places where you can buy STERLING: Wilson Tavern The Brunswick Harris Grocery Clarno's (Orangeville) Minert's (Davis) Pela's (Rock City)" - Ad in the Freeport (Illinois) Journal-Standard, Sept 22, 1939


"THIS BEER IS LOW IN CALORIES!

BEERS are brewed in many ways, from many formulas. Applying the most advanced brewing methods, using nothing but natural beer ingredients, STERLING gives you a beer LOW in calories. NO sugar, or glucose, or fattening syrups are used. Its true beer flavor is crisp and refreshing, and your pleasure is increased the knowledge that an 8-ounce glass is no more fattening than many beverages you often drink.

So to be sure of double satisfaction, ask for STERLING. ONE OF AMERICA'S FINEST BEERS STERLING BREWERS, INC., EVANSVILLE, INDIANA - Ad in the Valparaiso Vidette-Messenger, July 26, 1940

Sterling merged with the Associated Brewing. Co. group of Michigan in 1968 and it passed to G. Heileman in 1972. Sold to Evansville Brewing Company (below) in 1988 after G. Heileman closed the plant due to over capacity in its other plants.

The Sterling Quality Pledge

We know of no beer made with finer ingredients than Sterling. We use choice mountain grown hops, select 6-row barley and filter pure water to brew this premium beer. These select grains and hops, together with our natural aging, make Sterling the finest beer obtainable at any price. . . . . .Sterling, pure Sterling.

After G. Heilman bought the company the plant was used to make many of the brands they acquired from other breweries including Cooks from Evansville, Champagne Velvet from Terre Haute, and Drewrys from South Bend. Others included Drummond Brothers, 9-0-5, Falls City, Lederbrau, Pfeiffer, Rheingold, Tropical Ale, Weideman, Katz, Bavarian, and Prager Bohemian.

Prior to 1972, when Falls City Beer production moved to the Sterling plant in Evansville, a friendly local rivalry existed between the two beers. For many years the Evansville brewed Sterling was the #1 selling beer in Louisville, while Louisville-made Falls City was the #1 selling beer in Evansville.

Peak production was 900,000 bbls annually.

The EBA's office's Brucken's Annex, built in 1894, is in the Indiana Register of Historic Sites and Structures. The brewery has been demolished.

more info


Evansville Brewing plant in the early 1900s


Bottling Plant, early 1900s


Evansville Brewing Association
Evansville, Indiana


Mammoth New Bottling Shop
Evansville Brewing Ass'n, Evansville, Ind.
"Sterling" & "Rheingold" 
Completed June 1, 1914
Dimensions 110 ft x 250 ft - Four Story and Basement The most complete beer bottling plant in the United States. Modern and perfect in every detail. Hygiene, sanitation, and pasteurization are here practiced along the highest scientific lines. Visitors Welcome.


The Rathskeller in the basement of the brewery - from a postcard

Evansville Brewing Company

1988 - 1997

A group of local investors led by three founding owners, John Durnin, Mark Mattingly, and John Bzeznski, re-opened the brewery on Sept 21, 1988 after G.Heilman closed it due to over capacity throughout their brewing empire. The local investors wanted to retain the employee base of the plant.

The brewer was Ken Griffiths and the plant had a 1,200,000 bbl annual capacity. They employed about 90 people. The first CEO was Mark Mattingly and the last was Steven Cook. Headquarters was at 1301 Lloyd Expressway.

Evansville made Cooks, Wiedemann, Drewry's, Falls City, and Sterling beer and brewed beers under contract for many marketing companies including Frontier Brewing (Norway, IA - the first Certified organically brewed beer in the US), Rainbow Ridge Brewing (Marietta, GA - White Ridge Wheat Beer), State Street Brewing (Chicago, IL). They also made "novelty" beers such as 1990's Bicycle Beer's Veri Berry, Misty Lime, and Apricot Stone for a marketing company in Michigan.

The original big-mouth bottle came from Sterling (right). Mickey's, famous for the "big mouth" bottles, also originated at Sterling and is reputed to be named after the wife of the president of Sterling Brewers - the "Mickey part, not the "big mouth" part. It is now part of Miller via Stroh's.

Birell was made in the 1990s, licensed from Hürlimann Brewery in Zürich, Switzerland. Other brands included Coldsburg Gray, Drummond Brothers, Eagle, Evansville, Gerst, John Gilberts, Gringo Light, Hey Mon, Hoosier Red, Jackaroo, Joe's Freakin', Lemp, Lemp Light, Mo's Maxin, New Frontier, River City, Riverfront, Sainsburys, and Zebra.

By 1994 Evansville Brewing sold almost 40% of it's beer overseas. The "ISA" brand was produced for Argentina.

By 1996 they had started a line of beers under the "Old European Brewery Company" name. Many of these had names such as Jacob Rosnberger Munich Ale, Ian Kinross Highland Stout, Gustav Werner Alt Amber, and Otto Bruckman Bavarian Bock. The "Colonial Brewery Company" similarly made Bison Brau Original Wit and Allegheny Cream Ale.

Declared bankruptcy and closed on October 1, 1997. The brands were sold to Pittsburgh Brewing. The Sterling brand is now owned by Iron City Brewing in Pittsburgh, having bought the Pittsburgh Brewing Company.

This was still a large brewery right up to closing. In November/December, 1997 they packaged up the product in house - about 12 million cans. source


Part of the Evansville Brewing Plant

Others

Frederick Richert      

1848 - ????


"August Schieber was born in Wittenberg, Germany, February 7, 1841, a son of Frederick and Magdalena Schieber, residents of the town of Stuggart, where the father died when August was seven years of age. His mother married a second time, her husband being Frederick Richert, and in 1848 he brought his family to the United States and located in Evansville, Ind., where he established a brewery." - History of Posey County, John C. Leffel 1913

Union Brewery

1857 - before 1886

Owned by L. Rice & Co. That's Louis Rice, Jacob Rice's stepson. He left the City Brewery (above) to strike out on his own at the corner of Vine and 4th Street where the courthouse now stands.


"Coming down the canal, reaching Sycamore street, we came to another bridge and on the left side of it was the old Union brewery. This was an old landmark and one of the first breweries ever started here, but yet for some reason it was not successful. The building was amply large. It stood on the bank of the canal where water was easily obtained, but the output was never large. I do not remember who the owners were, but I do remember that it was where nearly everyone went for yeast. This could be had on certain days, and great strings of boys and girls could be seen going there to get the family yeast. I have a vague recollection that this yeast had something to do with buckwheat cakes but it is so long ago that I have forgotten." - History of the City of Evansville, Frank M. Gilbert, 1910.

The Indiana State Gazetteer and Business Directory of 1859 lists
  • Wingert & Reis, Eagle Brewery, Cor. of Pearl and Water Sts.

The 1868 Business Directory for Indiana lists 12 breweries in Evansville:

  • City Brewery, Cook & Rice. On 7th, between Main and Sycamore Streets.
  • Evansville Brewery, M. Stumpf & Eisenfelder. At the corner of 6th and Ingle Streets. Capacity 1,800 bbl.
  • Fahnley, Kuhn, and Co. At Bunker Hill with an office at 85 Main St.
  • Franklin Brewery, Fred Weber & Bro. At the corner of Franklin and 4th Ave.
  • Fulton Brewery, Bittrolff & Kroener. At the corner of 8th and 5th Ave.
  • Old Brewery, Kroener & Son. On Fulton Ave between 5th and 6th Streets. Closed about 1880. Peak production was 3,090 bbls.
  • Olive Branch Brewery, owned by Joseph Jauch. On 11th, near C.C. Springs.
  • Union Brewery, L Rice & Co. At the corner of Vine and Canal.
  • One owned by George J Fisher at the corner of Franklin and 9th Ave.
  • One owned by Jauch & Hirschberger. On Market between John and 4th Streets.
  • One owned by Philip G Klapper. At the corner of 12th  Ave and Franklin.
  • One owned by Henry Wingert at the corner of Pearl and Front Streets.

It is said that by 1876 there were 17 breweries operating in Evansville.

The Register of United States Breweries 1876-1976 a brewery that closed before 1875.
  • Henry Kothe & Bro. - capacity 105 bbl
A brewery owned by A. & T. Pauli from 1874 until 1878 is referenced in many sources as being in German, Indiana with a production of 265 bbls annually. We have no other information about this brewery but it probably was in German Township of one of Indiana's Counties: Bartholomew, St. Joseph, or most likely Vanderburgh.

Post-Prohibition

William J. Wittekindt Brewing Co. Inc.

1935 - 1941

"Evansville's newest and third brewery" was the William J. Wittekindt Brewing Co. Inc. It was at 11 S. Kentucky Ave.


"In Evansville, only Sterling and Cook's resumed operation. Not long after, though, a family ong connected with the brewing industry made a final stab at it.

With the end of Prohibition in sight, H. William Wittekindt; a native of Germany and head of the A. A. Wittekindt cooperage firm that had turned out hundreds of white oak barrels a day for breweries before Prohibition decided to try it.

He sent his 21-year-old son, William J., to brewers school in Chicago for a year and a half, starting in 1932, and then on to Munich, Germany, for a year's apprenticeship in a brewery.

The Wittekindt brewery began operations in 1935 at the southwest corner of Kentucky Avenue, Division Street and Canal Street with the founder's son as the brewmaster.

It failed and Wittekindt today explains the 1941 closing of the brewery in simple terms. "We didn't sell enough beer." - Evansville Courier-Journal, July 3, 1976

Brands included Hi Hop Beer and Wittekindt Muenchener Beer.

Main Street

1996 - Present

Brewpub attached to Turoni's Pizzeria which dates to 1963. Brewing operations added in 1996. Brewer Eric Watson set the standard and formulated most of the beers. He left in 2004 and was replaced by Jack Frey.

 

Firkin Brewpub
1997 - 1998

The Little Cheers
2004 - 2006

At 329 Main St. Evansville, installed a small brewhouse in the old bank vault for brewer Nathaniel Cruise. This venture did not last long.

The Firkin was resurrected in 2004 with the same equipment and same brewer but a new name. A downtown bar with little emphasis on their own beers. It stopped brewing in 2006.

Another note about some Evansville brewers


"REFUSES ORDER OF EXTRADITION
Governor Ralston Declines to Send Seven Evansville Brewers to Tennessee to Face Prohibition Law Indictments.
FLAWS IN PAPERS ALLEGED
Attitude Is Based on Errors in Legal Documents
No Evidence That Indiana Men Are Fugitives.

Governor Ralston yesterday refused to honor papers from Governor Ben W Sooper of Tennessee, for the extradition of seven Evansville brewers who are wanted at Memphis on grand jury indictments charging them with violation of the "four mile" state prohibition law of Tennessee.

The men sought by the Tennessee authorities are Charles F. Hartmetz, John Wlmberg, Gust C Meyer and Charles Ullmer, who are officers of the Evansville Brewing Association, and Henry E Cook, F W Cook and G M Caussman of the F W Cook Brewing Company, Evansville.

Papers Declared Faulty.

The extradition of the Indiana men was denied because of gross Irregularities in the papers, but, even with the papers presented in proper form, it's probable that Governor Ralston would have refused to honor them, because there is no showing that the men were in Tennessee at the time of the commission of their alleged, crime and that they actually are fugitives. The Governor cites court decisions to sustain his contention that he can not legally allow the extradition of an Indiana man unless there is a showing that that man fled from the state." - Indianapolis Star, July 12, 1914

Copyright 2004, 2007, 2009, Bob Ostrander